Category Archives: Uncategorized

An open letter to Senator Todd Young regarding declassifying documents related to the Russia investigation

9/18/2018

Dear Senator Young,

As a distinguished graduate of the US Naval Academy, a former Naval intelligence officer with a top secret clearance, and a former leader of the VMU-2 intelligence department, I want to know what you think about Trump’s broad and indiscriminate declassification of information related to the Russia probe. If you can, put politics aside and please let me know what a person with your background in Navy Intelligence thinks.

Personally, beyond being a transparent attempt to interfere with an ongoing investigation, I believe Trump’s action places the men and women working in the intelligence community at risk. It places America at risk by revealing to foreign intelligence agencies precisely what materials and methods we use in combating foreign threats.

In a word, Trump’s actions are obscene. It’s hard to imagine anyone working in the intelligence community, or who previously worked in the intelligence community, thinks this is a good idea. Do you? Would you want detailed records of your role in Caribbean counter narcotics activities to be made public?

The real question is what you will do to protect America against “all enemies foreign and domestic.”

This is when I really miss John McCain. He would not have been silent on this issue. He would be raising holy hell because above all else he put America first. Everyone on God’s green earth knows Trump only thinks about Trump and his next transaction. I’m starting to give up hope that anyone in the senate is all that different. Are you?

Respectfully,

Dr. Steven Barefoot

Indianapolis, Indiana

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The Military-Industrial Complex at age 57: A bomb made in Pennsylvania obliterates a school bus in Yemen.

It’s been nearly a month since an August 9th airstrike by the Saudi coalition destroyed a school bus in Northern Yemen. Over 40 children were killed in the attack by a bomb made in America. Initially, the Saudi’s claimed the bombing in the Saada province had targeted missile launchers, but they have since acknowledged the strike against the bus was “unjustified.” [1]

2 Report-Yemen-school-bus-bombing-not-justified

The tragedies of this event exist on many levels. I would argue that all have their roots in the ingrained aggression and greed that appears to frequently define our species. Exacerbating the problem is that our cleverness in adapting technology to the purpose of causing death and destruction seems limitless.

Not only are we superbly adept at advancing the technology of destruction, the profitability of selling the fruits of that labor to countries around the world is a massive incentive to continue their development.

The Military-Industrial complex is 57 years old

Much has been said about President Eisenhower’s prescient warning about the rise of a military-industrial complex. In his farewell speech on January 17, 1961, the president noted that in the post-World War II era, he believed “Our arms must be mighty, ready for instant action, so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction.”

However, he also noted that there could be an evolving danger saying, “In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.”  [Full transcript below]

It’s is hard to dismiss the notion that an American-made bomb landing on a school bus in Yemen reflects anything but a “disastrous rise of misplaced power.”

The video below is President Eisenhower’s full farewell address queued to start at the 6:52 mark where he begins his discussion of the military-industrial complex.

We’re #1!

Yea! American arm manufacturers’ thirst for profits has resulted in America being the number one exporter of military arms in the worldwide, multi-billion-dollar market.

Consider the following data points from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) [2]

  • In 2013–17 the USA accounted for 34 per cent of total arms exports.
  • The USA supplied major arms to 98 states in 2013–17
  • Exports to states in the Middle East accounted for 49 per cent of total US arms exports
  • USA and European states remain the main arms exporters to the region and supplied over 98 per cent of weapons imported by Saudi Arabia.
  • In 2013–17 Saudi Arabia was the world’s second largest arms importer, with arms imports increasing by 225 per cent compared with 2008–12.

Indiscriminate destruction

The thing about selling weapons of war to other countries is that it’s difficult to control how those weapons are used. That’s exactly what happened in Yemen. The US can object to the Saudi’s handling of the Houthi rebels in Yemen, but clearly our influence doesn’t always extend to the command and control centers. Nevertheless, the bus attack clearly has the stamp of “Made in America” on it.

The MK 82 Paveway: Made in America, sold to Saudi Arabia, dropped in Yemen

Based on markings found on shrapnel, reporting from CNN indicates the ordinance dropped on the bus was a 500 pound, MK 82 Paveway Laser Guided Bomb (LGB) manufactured at the Lockheed Martin facility in Archbald, Pennsylvania.[3]

180817201214-yemen-bomb-shrapnel-exlarge-169

Shrapnel reported by CNN to be from the bomb dropped on the school bus (CNN)

The MK 82 (PDF Specs) is an effective and lethal workhorse in the fields of conflict [4] and a money-maker for its manufacturers. In 2016, Lockheed announced they received an 87-million-dollar contract from the US Air Force for the MK 82. The press release touted the success of the MK 82 product line by stating: “The company has delivered…more than 75,000 Paveway II LGB kits and approximately 7,000 dual-mode systems to the U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force and more than 20 international customers.” [5] (emphasis added)

A year later Lockheed celebrated the delivery of their 100,000th Paveway LGB.[6] This is the military-industrial complex in action.

While Lockheed seems quite proud of their production of the MK 82, I’m not convinced the same can be said for a manufacturer of MK 80 series bomb bodies, General Dynamics. In January 2018, The U.S. Army Contracting Command announced its intention to award a sole-source, firm-fixed price contract to General Dynamics in, Garland, Texas, for Fiscal Year 2019-2023 for MK80 Series General Purpose (GP) Bomb Bodies.[7]

The disappearing MK 80 product literature on the General Dynamics website

The reason I question General Dynamics’ pride in manufacturing MK 80 series bodies is that the marketing literature for the product line on their website seems to have been removed. A google search indicates that at one time a brochure was available for the MK 80 series. However, that brochure is no longer available.

GD google search

Google search results showing a PDF of the MK 80 series bomb hardware was indexed from the General Dynamics website.

GD 404 error

The MK 80 series PDF is no longer on the General Dynamics website.

Correlation is not causation, but I find the timing of the disappearance of the MK 80 series literature from the General Dynamics website suspicious. The Internet Archive website captured a snapshot of their website on August 8th, clearly showing the MK 80 marketing page was active and the brochure was available for download.[8] The Yemen bombing was the next day.

GD MK80 wayback machine

The Internet Archive has a snapshot of the General Dynamics website showing the MK 80 series was available on August 8 – one day before the bombing in Yemen.

I’m not sure why or when the General Dynamics marketing team decided to pull the MK 80 page, but I wonder if it could be due to the possibility that one of the bomb bodies manufactured in their Garland facility may have been the one that killed the children in Yemen. I hope that’s the case as it would indicate that at least part of the military-industrial complex may have a conscious. Alternatively, it may just have been a response to stockholders’ concerns or a prudent public relations move.

Desensitization to the purpose of the product?

In looking at the bus destroyed by the Saudi-dropped MK 82 and thinking of the children killed and their parents I found myself wondering what life was like in the small towns that made the bombs.

The Lockheed plant that manufactures the MK 82 is in Archbald, Pennsylvania – population 6,900. The differences between that small, rural town in Pennsylvania and the small rural town in Yemen where the bus was bombed could not be starker. And yet, children are children, and parents are parents, regardless of the geographical or cultural divide.

How do workers at the Lockheed plant reconcile the fact that one of the bombs they built killed innocent children half way around the world? I suspect there’s a hefty dose of rationalization or compartmentalization involved, as well as the succor of a solid paycheck.

But, I just can’t escape the peculiar juxtaposition of life in small-town America with an arms manufacturing facility that exports lethal weapons around the world. After all, the Lockheed plant in Archbald and the Valley View High School are only 100 feet apart.[9] The General Dynamics facility in Garland is across the street from Garland Independent School District’s Williams Stadium. [10]

Where is Eisenhower’s Military-Industrial complex?

It is not secreted away in a remote desert. It is not cloistered under a distant mountain.

No, it is scattered throughout America, in cities large and small.

It is interwoven in the lives of hundreds of thousands of working men and women simply trying to make a living and get through life. It is what allows its employees in Archbald, Pennsylvania or Garland, Texas to buy hot dogs at a high school football game a few hundred feet away from a bomb-making plant. It is what allows a parent to buy their child an ice cream cone while watching the Labor Day parade in Garland.

It is in the boardroom and shareholder meetings of Lockheed Martin, General Dynamics, and hundreds of other suppliers of military products and parts.

It is the pork on the barrel for politicians wanting to bring lucrative defense contracts and the associated jobs to voters in their district, as well as to ensure a healthy flow of contributions to their campaign coffers.

Where is Eisenhower’s Military-Industrial complex? – It’s everywhere.

An addiction without an intervention is sight

The military-industrial complex is like a drug to which we have become addicted. It is lethal and destructive, but the financial high it induces prevents us from even wanting to consider sobriety.

Supporters of the defense industry may argue that exporting military arms makes the world a safer place. I would argue that is a rationalization and only a partial truth. The defense industry is only partially about defense, it’s mostly about increasing arms sales to almost any willing party in the insatiable pursuit of ever-increasing profits. It’s certainly not simply about maintaining a “ready and able military force” Eisenhower envisioned as necessary. The cold reality is if we build it, they will bomb.

It is profoundly disturbing that the bombing of a bus filled with children half a world away is just the cost of maintaining the profits that sustain the military-industrial machine.

graves

[1] https://www.reuters.com/article/us-yemen-security-saudi-strike/saudi-led-coalition-admits-deadly-yemen-strike-on-bus-was-unjustified-idUSKCN1LH3JO

[2] https://www.sipri.org/databases/armstransfers

[3] https://www.cnn.com/2018/08/17/middleeast/us-saudi-yemen-bus-strike-intl/index.html

[4] http://characterisationexplosiveweapons.org/studies/annex-e-mk82-aircraft-bombs/

[5] https://news.lockheedmartin.com/2016-09-19-U-S-Air-Force-Awards-Lockheed-Martin-87-Million-Contract-for-Paveway-II-Plus-Laser-Guided-Bombs

[6] https://news.lockheedmartin.com/2017-8-29-Lockheed-Martin-Delivers-100-000th-Paveway-TM-II-Plus-Laser-Guided-Bomb

[7] https://www.fbo.gov/notices/359dd46076792760bf62084a8274de6b

[8] https://web.archive.org/web/20180808082608/https://www.gd-ots.com/munitions/air-delivered/mk-80-series-bomb-hardware/

[9] https://www.google.com/maps/search/lockheed+martin/@41.4992564,-75.5642308,1273m/data=!3m1!1e3

[10] https://www.google.com/maps/place/General+Dynamics/@32.9238546,-96.6384425,868m/data=!3m1!1e3


Transcript

Transcript of President Dwight D. Eisenhowers Farewell Address (1961)

My fellow Americans:

Three days from now, after half a century in the service of our country, I shall lay down the responsibilities of office as, in traditional and solemn ceremony, the authority of the Presidency is vested in my successor.

This evening I come to you with a message of leave-taking and farewell, and to share a few final thoughts with you, my countrymen.

Like every other citizen, I wish the new President, and all who will labor with him, Godspeed. I pray that the coming years will be blessed with peace and prosperity for all.
Our people expect their President and the Congress to find essential agreement on issues of great moment, the wise resolution of which will better shape the future of the Nation.

My own relations with the Congress, which began on a remote and tenuous basis when, long ago, a member of the Senate appointed me to West Point, have since ranged to the intimate during the war and immediate post-war period, and, finally, to the mutually interdependent during these past eight years.

In this final relationship, the Congress and the Administration have, on most vital issues, cooperated well, to serve the national good rather than mere partisanship, and so have assured that the business of the Nation should go forward. So, my official relationship with the Congress ends in a feeling, on my part, of gratitude that we have been able to do so much together.
II

We now stand ten years past the midpoint of a century that has witnessed four major wars among great nations. Three of these involved our own country. Despite these holocausts America is today the strongest, the most influential and most productive nation in the world. Understandably proud of this pre-eminence, we yet realize that America’s leadership and prestige depend, not merely upon our unmatched material progress, riches and military strength, but on how we use our power in the interests of world peace and human betterment.

III

Throughout America’s adventure in free government, our basic purposes have been to keep the peace; to foster progress in human achievement, and to enhance liberty, dignity and integrity among people and among nations. To strive for less would be unworthy of a free and religious people. Any failure traceable to arrogance, or our lack of comprehension or readiness to sacrifice would inflict upon us grievous hurt both at home and abroad.

Progress toward these noble goals is persistently threatened by the conflict now engulfing the world. It commands our whole attention, absorbs our very beings. We face a hostile ideology-global in scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose, and insidious in method. Unhappily the danger it poses promises to be of indefinite duration. To meet it successfully, there is called for, not so much the emotional and transitory sacrifices of crisis, but rather those which enable us to carry forward steadily, surely, and without complaint the burdens of a prolonged and complex struggle-with liberty at stake. Only thus shall we remain, despite every provocation, on our charted course toward permanent peace and human betterment.

Crises there will continue to be. In meeting them, whether foreign or domestic, great or small,there is a recurring temptation to feel that some spectacular and costly action could become the miraculous solution to all current difficulties. A huge increase in newer elements of our defense; development of unrealistic programs to cure every ill in agriculture; a dramatic expansion in basic and applied research-these and many other possibilities, each possibly promising in itself, may be suggested as the only way to the road we which to travel.

But each proposal must be weighed in the light of a broader consideration: the need to maintain balance in and among national programs-balance between the private and the public economy, balance between cost and hoped for advantage-balance between the clearly necessary and the comfortably desirable; balance between our essential requirements as a nation and the duties imposed by the nation upon the individual; balance between action of the moment and the national welfare of the future. Good judgment seeks balance and progress; lack of it eventually finds imbalance and frustration.

The record of many decades stands as proof that our people and their government have, in the main, understood these truths and have responded to them well, in the face of stress and threat. But threats, new in kind or degree, constantly arise. I mention two only.

IV

A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment. Our arms must be mighty, ready for instant action, so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction.

Our military organization today bears little relation to that known by any of my predecessors in peace time, or indeed by the fighting men of World War II or Korea.

Until the latest of our world conflicts, the United States had no armaments industry. American makers of plowshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well. But now we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions. Added to this, three and a half million men and women are directly engaged in the defense establishment. We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all United State corporations.

This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence-economic, political, even spiritual-is felt in every city, every state house, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of our society.

In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.

We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together.

Akin to, and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrial-military posture, has been the technological revolution during recent decades.

In this revolution, research has become central; it also becomes more formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily increasing share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal government.

Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been over shadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers.

The prospect of domination of the nation’s scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present and is gravely to be regarded.

Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite.

It is the task of statesmanship to mold, to balance, and to integrate these and other forces, new and old, within the principles of our democratic system-ever aiming toward the supreme goals of our free society.
V

Another factor in maintaining balance involves the element of time. As we peer into society’s future, we-you and I, and our government-must avoid the impulse to live only for today, plundering, for our own ease and convenience, the precious resources of tomorrow. We cannot mortgage the material assets of our grandchildren without risking the loss also of their political and spiritual heritage. We want democracy to survive for all generations to come, not to become the insolvent phantom of tomorrow.
VI

Down the long lane of the history yet to be written America knows that this world of ours, ever growing smaller, must avoid becoming a community of dreadful fear and hate, and be, instead, a proud confederation of mutual trust and respect.

Such a confederation must be one of equals. The weakest must come to the conference table with the same confidence as do we, protected as we are by our moral, economic, and military strength. That table, though scarred by many past frustrations, cannot be abandoned for the certain agony of the battlefield.

Disarmament, with mutual honor and confidence, is a continuing imperative. Together we must learn how to compose difference, not with arms, but with intellect and decent purpose. Because this need is so sharp and apparent I confess that I lay down my official responsibilities in this field with a definite sense of disappointment. As one who has witnessed the horror and the lingering sadness of war-as one who knows that another war could utterly destroy this civilization which has been so slowly and painfully built over thousands of years-I wish I could say tonight that a lasting peace is in sight.

Happily, I can say that war has been avoided. Steady progress toward our ultimate goal has been made. But, so much remains to be done. As a private citizen, I shall never cease to do what little I can to help the world advance along that road.
VII

So-in this my last good night to you as your President-I thank you for the many opportunities you have given me for public service in war and peace. I trust that in that service you find somethings worthy; as for the rest of it, I know you will find ways to improve performance in the future.

You and I-my fellow citizens-need to be strong in our faith that all nations, under God, will reach the goal of peace with justice. May we be ever unswerving in devotion to principle, confident but humble with power, diligent in pursuit of the Nation’s great goals.

To all the peoples of the world, I once more give expression to America’s prayerful and continuing inspiration:

We pray that peoples of all faiths, all races, all nations, may have their great human needs satisfied; that those now denied opportunity shall come to enjoy it to the full; that all who yearn for freedom may experience its spiritual blessings; that those who have freedom will understand, also, its heavy responsibilities; that all who are insensitive to the needs of others will learn charity; that the scourges of poverty, disease and ignorance will be made to disappear from the earth, and that, in the goodness of time, all peoples will come to live together in a peace guaranteed by the binding force of mutual respect and love.

Source: ourdocuments.gov 

Transcription courtesy of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum.

EPA deregulation accelerates the demise of our species. Or, killing humanity is just dumb.

01 - smokestack

August 31, 2018: “The results show that insects will cause significantly increased grain loss across many regions of a warmer world.”[1]

July 26, 2018: “Trump administration to freeze Obama-era fuel standards for cars, light trucks”[2]

These two, recent headlines caught my attention and reinforced to me that humans are failing to put the climate change puzzle pieces together in a way that will cause us to make changes in our day-to-day activities. The issue is not only about negative health impacts to living humans from environmental deregulation, but more significantly, rolling back EPA regulations fans the flames of climate change that will have a profound impact on all life on the planet – including humans.

Sound alarmist? You bet, just ask the dinosaurs how they perceived their extinction that lasted for tens of thousand of years after the asteroid crashed into the Yucatan creating the Chicxulub crater. Oh wait, you can’t – they’re all gone.

By comparing the current species extinction rate to the historical background species extinction rate, some scientists have made the argument that we are currently living through the sixth mass extinction – the Holocene Extinction. It is argued that climate change is a significant contributory factor to the extinction. The last extinction was the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event that took out the dinosaurs. Current events are causing me to revisit the topic that I had previously posted in 2014.[3]

Mass extinctions sound cataclysmic, and they are- but from a human’s time-perception perspective, the individual events that roll up into a mass extinction happen so slowly that they may go unnoticed. There are many signs – we can see (and feel) the records being set for hottest years, we can measure that the oceans re getting warmer, we can observe the retreat of glaciers, we can see satellite pictures of melting ice caps, we can confirm that the rate of sea level rise is accelerating, we can watch the havoc caused by massive algae blooms worldwide, and we can see the reports of insects eating more grain crops,  We can even read the scientific opinions about the reduction of air quality causing tens of thousand of more deaths in the near term. [4]

A mass extinction is not really an existential threat to the planet. Earth will be around for billions of years, regardless of the species populating it. A mass extinction is a threat to the current species on the planet – one of which is humans. So, what is the response of the dominant species on earth, the one with the most to lose, and the one with the intelligence and capability to bend the curve of climate change?

Government of some countries recognize the threat and take it seriously. However, the response of the American executive branch, vis-à-vis Donald Trump, defies reason. The efforts of the Trump administration to sacrifice environment and health for corporate profits and votes in coal country are remarkable for their myopia. The policies are not consistent with reason nor logic, but then few Trump actions are. A few headlines confirm the myopia and the irrationality of Trumps actions on the environment.

  •  “76 Environmental Rules on the Way Out Under Trump”[5]
  • “Trump administration to freeze Obama-era fuel standards for cars, light trucks”[6]
  • “Trump’s EPA rolls back Obama-era coal ash regulations”[7]
  • “Go deeper: How Trump’s EPA will roll back Obama-era methane rules”[8]

There are many more environmental regulations targeted for deregulation – too many for me to list, Fortunately, Columbia Climate Law has done that for us with their climate deregulation tracker.

I remain skeptical that humans will get our collective act together for us to enjoy a truly positive outcome, But then, we may just be nearing the end of the average age of a species on earth and are finding a novel way to accelerate our own inevitable demise. On that positive note, I need to go turn down the A/C.

[1] http://science.sciencemag.org/content/361/6405/846

[2] https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2018/07/26/trump-epa-freeze-obama-era-fuel-standards-cars-light-trucks/840816002/

[3] https://confrontingmediocrity.net/2014/04/13/the-holocene-extinction-event-is-our-species-destiny-to-be-known-as-the-burners/

[4] https://newsatjama.jama.com/2018/05/10/jama-forum-a-breath-of-bad-air-trump-environmental-agenda-may-lead-to-80%E2%80%85000-extra-deaths-per-decade/

[5] https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/10/05/climate/trump-environment-rules-reversed.html

[6] https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2018/07/26/trump-epa-freeze-obama-era-fuel-standards-cars-light-trucks/840816002/

[7] https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/trump-s-epa-rolls-back-obama-era-coal-ash-regulations-n892586

[8] https://www.axios.com/trump-epa-obama-methane-emissions-rules-730ce0a5-ea9e-490f-a4cf-219e2559c3ff.html

Representative Susan Brooks: Campaign finance in Indiana’s 5th congressional district

Spoiler Alert- Brooks (R): $1,705,504 Thornton (D): $29,042

axiosAxios published an article on August 28, “Most campaign contributions come from outside candidates’ districts,”[1] that has an interactive map showing the source of campaign contributions for US Senate and House candidates. The data for the map is from the Federal Election Commission (FEC) data repository.[2]

The map is a great visualization showing how virtually every race for the House and Senate has national funding. However, Susan Brooks, my representative for the 5th congressional district in Indiana was not included in the Axios data, so I thought I’d see what the FEC had to say about her funding, and the funding of her opponent, Dee Thornton[3].

Context for comments

This was actually a painful exercise for me because it reinforced the electoral futility of being a practical progressive in district that Romney won by 10 points over Obama in 2012 and Clinton lost to Trump by 10 points in 2016. The Cook political report scores the district as +9 Republican, meaning that compared to all other Republican districts in the country, the 5th outperforms them by an average of 9%. Cook says that makes the Indiana 5th the 148th “most Republican” district in the nation.[4],[5]

Of course. I still cast my vote, but it’s with the realization that virtually none of the national or state-wide candidates for whom I vote will ever be in office. Well, Democratic Senator Joe Donnelly may eek out his reelection, but after being inundated with his commercials touting his support of Trump and building “The Wall,” I wonder if I’m really voting for a Democrat. As is often the case in this blog, I digress.

Representative Brooks

Based on the demographics of the district, Representative Brooks will have her job in the House for as long as she wants it. I think she’s a competent politician, and she responds to all my letters expressing opinions different from hers. (I know it’s boilerplate responses from her staff.)

It’s just that her views don’t often align with mine, and then there’s the whole thing of her silence on opposing a president who clearly isn’t “all there mentally” and is tearing apart the fabric of our society as he feeds his narcissistic personality and fans the flames of fear to achieve his personal gains. But, by and large, she strikes me as a traditional Republican – a species rapidly approaching extinction. I think her silence, and her colleagues’, silence on Trump is a clear signal that the traditional Republicans may soon only be found in the fossil record. Another digression…

Brooks being average is good

I think Brooks is an average Representative which makes looking at her finances even more interesting. She’s in a Republican annuity district and the race is far, far from competitive. And yet, despite her all-but-certain victory in November, in the 2018 election cycle she has raised $976,366 to her opponent’s total of $55,516. In terms of cash on hand, Brooks has $1,705,504 to Thornton’s $29,042 – that’s a 58-fold difference. That’s quite an advantage in “free speech.”[6]

3 Brooks v Thornton financing

Source: https://www.fec.gov/data/elections/house/IN/05/2018/

So much money – where does it all come from?

Apparently everywhere. Well, not exactly everywhere, but Brooks’ contributions come from at least 30 states ranging from Massachusetts to California and from Florida to Washington. There’s even a contribution from Montana. To be sure, all of this is fair and above board.

Since Axios didn’t include data for Brooks, I created an interactive map that shows contribution totals by zip code.[7]

1 national map

Map of contributions to Representative Brooks by zip code (click map to launch)

2 dc map

Zooming in, one can see Brooks received $71,200 from one zip code in DC. Compare this to the overall total of $55,516 raised by Thornton.

Campaign finance reform

I know the topic of campaign finance reform has been around for decades. It’s a real problem when politicians can receive virtually unlimited campaign donations. I’ve always wondered why all those people are giving politicians so much money. I think we all know the answer. It’s not altruism. Some small donors may think they are helping promulgate their views through their donations to a like-minded candidate. But when it comes to large donations in a rock-solid, safe Republican district like Indiana’s 5th, I think it apparent that the donors expect a return on their investment.

I’m not singling out Representative Brooks because I believe that she’s in the pay-for-play business – at least, no more than any politician who has large donors and feels compelled to take their calls. No, I’m focusing on her simply because she’s my own representative.

The table below is a download of FEC data[8] for Brooks for the 2018 election cycle ending June 30. I’ve included the table because scrolling through a list may convey the magnitude of the data better than summary numbers.

The system is broken

Well, of course. Who could disagree with that? The question is how do we fix it? There is no quick solution. I think part of the answer is for people living in “safe” Republican districts to continue to vote, even when there is very little likelihood their candidate will win. Sooner or later, if people keep voting, there may be incremental, district by district, change that will enable the reform of campaign finance laws. Who knows, if enough of the people who don’t make big political contributions keep voting when it seems futile, we may even get to the point were voters are not suppressed and districts are not gerrymandered. Well, a guy can dream.

[1] https://www.axios.com/house-campaign-contributions-outside-money-f776be9e-f74b-4834-8ff4-ae30df1f7c61.html

[2] https://www.fec.gov/data/

[3] http://www.deethorntonforcongress.com/

[4] https://www.cookpolitical.com/introducing-2017-cook-political-report-partisan-voter-index

[5] https://ballotpedia.org/Indiana%27s_5th_Congressional_District_election,_2018#cite_note-7

[6] http://www.scotusblog.com/case-files/cases/citizens-united-v-federal-election-commission/

[7] https://goo.gl/C5V2Vj

[8] https://www.fec.gov/data/receipts/?two_year_transaction_period=2018&data_type=processed&committee_id=C00500207&min_date=01%2F01%2F2017&max_date=08%2F31%2F2018

Table data downloaded from the Federal Election Commission website.

Contributor Name Amount Zip State Entity Date Type
HOOSIERS FOR SUSAN AND LUKE $14,900 20016 DC COM 3/19/2018 PRIMARY
KOPS-BEDEL, ELAINE MS. $5,400 46240 IN IND 6/19/2017 PRIMARY
RECTOR, CURTIS A. MR. $5,400 46236 VA IND 5/3/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN OPTOMETRIC ASSOCIATION PAC $5,000 22314 TX PAC 6/2/2017 PRIMARY
ANTHEMPAC $5,000 46204 CA PAC 6/2/2017 PRIMARY
AT&T INC. FEDERAL PAC $5,000 75202 OH PAC 6/14/2018 GENERAL
AT&T INC. FEDERAL PAC $5,000 75202 IL PAC 6/1/2017 PRIMARY
AUTOMOTIVE FREE INTERNATIONAL TRADE PAC $5,000 22314 MD PAC 4/30/2018 PRIMARY
CAPITAL GROUP COMPANIES INC. PAC $5,000 90071 MA PAC 5/8/2018 GENERAL
CAPITAL GROUP COMPANIES INC. PAC $5,000 90071 SD PAC 5/8/2018 PRIMARY
CARDINAL HEALTH INC PAC $5,000 43017 NC PAC 3/29/2017 PRIMARY
CATERPILLAR EMPLOYEES PAC $5,000 61629 PA PAC 8/11/2017 PRIMARY
CHEVRON EMPLOYEES PAC $5,000 94583 CT PAC 5/7/2018 PRIMARY
COX ENTERPRISES PAC $5,000 20004 MO PAC 6/21/2018 GENERAL
COX ENTERPRISES PAC $5,000 20004 FL PAC 9/22/2017 PRIMARY
DEERE & COMPANY PAC (AKA JOHN DEERE PAC) $5,000 61265 NY PAC 6/29/2017 PRIMARY
DELOITTE FEDERAL PAC $5,000 20044 NJ PAC 5/26/2017 PRIMARY
ELI LILLY AND COMPANY PAC $5,000 46285 MN PAC 6/21/2018 GENERAL
ELI LILLY AND COMPANY PAC $5,000 46285 GA PAC 3/29/2017 PRIMARY
ERNST & YOUNG PAC $5,000 20005 DE PAC 5/1/2018 PRIMARY
FAEGREBD PAC $5,000 46204 WI PAC 7/14/2017 PRIMARY
GENERAL MOTORS COMPANY PAC $5,000 20001 MI PAC 7/10/2017 PRIMARY
LONE STAR LEADERSHIP PAC $5,000 20824 WA PAC 6/6/2017 PRIMARY
MAJORITY COMMITTEE PAC $5,000 93389 TN PAC 5/8/2018 GENERAL
MAJORITY COMMITTEE PAC $5,000 93389 NE PAC 5/8/2018 PRIMARY
MASSACHUSETTS MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY PAC $5,000 11110 RI PAC 1/29/2018 PRIMARY
NATIONAL CABLE & TELECOMMUNICATIONS ASSOCIATION PAC $5,000 20001 AR PAC 3/1/2018 PRIMARY
NEW PIONEERS PAC $5,000 22314 CO PAC 3/16/2018 PRIMARY
POET PAC $5,000 57104 KS PAC 3/31/2018 GENERAL
PROSPERITY  ACTION INC. PAC $5,000 22314 MT PAC 3/1/2018 GENERAL
PROSPERITY ACTION INC. $5,000 20003 IN PAC 4/6/2017 PRIMARY
THE HOME DEPOT PAC $5,000 20004 IN PAC 3/31/2018 PRIMARY
VALUE IN ELECTING WOMEN PAC $5,000 20001 TX PAC 6/28/2017 PRIMARY
WINNING FOR WOMEN, INC. PAC $5,000 20007 VA PAC 6/1/2018 GENERAL
HEALTH FIRST COMMITTEE $3,790 20824 CA COM 6/30/2017 PRIMARY
DUKE ENERGY CORPORATION PAC $3,000 28202 CA PAC 5/4/2018 PRIMARY
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF BROADCASTERS PAC $3,000 20036 DC PAC 3/29/2017 PRIMARY
RAYTHEON PAC $3,000 22209 DC PAC 5/1/2018 PRIMARY
THE DOW AGROSCIENCES LLC EMPLOYEE PAC (AGPAC) $3,000 46268 IL PAC 3/1/2018 PRIMARY
US ONCOLOGY INC. NETWORK PAC (THE US ONCOLOGY NETWORK PAC) $3,000 77380 DC PAC 5/9/2018 GENERAL
ANDERSON, DEVIN D. MR. $2,700 46032 IN IND 9/27/2017 PRIMARY
BARANAY, PETER F. $2,700 46624 IN IND 4/18/2017 PRIMARY
BASTIAN, WILLIAM A. MR. II $2,700 46032 DC IND 2/1/2018 PRIMARY
BEDEL, JR., ERIC J. MR. $2,700 46260 IN IND 6/19/2017 PRIMARY
BHATIA, SUMEETA $2,700 46032 DC IND 8/24/2017 PRIMARY
BRALY, ANGELA F. MS. $2,700 46260 CA IND 4/23/2018 PRIMARY
BRALY, DOUGLAS MR. $2,700 46260 CA IND 4/23/2018 PRIMARY
CHA, ALBERT MR. $2,700 94024 DC IND 4/16/2018 PRIMARY
CHA, CHERYL MRS. $2,700 94024 VA IND 4/16/2018 PRIMARY
COLLINS, JERRY K. MR. $2,700 46062 VA IND 10/9/2017 PRIMARY
FEHSENFELD, FRED M. MR. SR. $2,700 46260 DC IND 1/13/2018 PRIMARY
FISHER, CYNTHIA $2,700 2458 DC IND 6/29/2017 PRIMARY
HASTEN, HART MR. $2,700 46268 DC IND 8/24/2017 PRIMARY
HOWELL, J MARK $2,700 46032 DC IND 8/15/2017 PRIMARY
KERSEY, ROBERT E. MR. $2,700 47304 MD IND 3/5/2018 PRIMARY
LECHLEITER, JOHN C. DR. $2,700 46204 DC IND 4/25/2018 PRIMARY
LECHLEITER, SARAH L. MS. $2,700 46204 VA IND 4/25/2018 PRIMARY
LONGEST, JAMES B. $2,700 46250 IN IND 8/24/2017 PRIMARY
LONGEST, THOMAS MR. $2,700 46250 TX IND 3/31/2018 PRIMARY
NATIONAL APARTMENT ASSOCIATION PAC $2,700 22203 IN PAC 10/19/2017 PRIMARY
RECTOR, CURTIS A. MR. $2,700 46236 IN IND 5/3/2018 GENERAL
RYDER, THOMAS R. MR. $2,700 46040 IN IND 5/10/2018 GENERAL
SCHAHET, GARY N. MR. $2,700 46260 IN IND 8/14/2017 PRIMARY
SNYDER, JAMES MR. $2,700 46032 IN IND 3/29/2018 GENERAL
SNYDER, MARYANN MS. $2,700 46032 IN IND 3/29/2018 PRIMARY
SNYDER, MARYANN MS. $2,700 46032 IN IND 3/29/2018 GENERAL
WARREN-COLLINS, CAROL MRS. $2,700 46062 CA IND 6/19/2017 PRIMARY
ABBVIE PAC $2,500 60064 CA PAC 3/16/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL UROLOGISTS PAC (UROPAC) $2,500 20003 IN PAC 6/15/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN BANKERS ASSOCIATION PAC $2,500 20036 IN PAC 5/4/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN BANKERS ASSOCIATION PAC $2,500 20036 MA PAC 3/31/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN CABLE ASSOCIATION INC PAC (ACA PAC) $2,500 15220 IN PAC 2/2/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN DENTAL PAC $2,500 20005 IN PAC 5/24/2018 GENERAL
AMERICAN DENTAL PAC $2,500 20005 IN PAC 3/30/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF TRAVEL AGENTS PAC $2,500 22314 IN PAC 6/2/2017 PRIMARY
ASSOCIATED BUILDERS & CONTRACTORS PAC $2,500 22203 IN PAC 6/30/2017 PRIMARY
AUTHER-ANDRES, SUSAN MS. $2,500 22213 IN IND 3/22/2018 PRIMARY
BAKER DONELSON BEARMAN CALDWELL & BERKOWITZ PAC $2,500 20001 IN PAC 6/29/2018 GENERAL
BAKER DONELSON BEARMAN CALDWELL & BERKOWITZ PAC $2,500 20001 VA PAC 3/29/2017 PRIMARY
BNSF RAILPAC $2,500 76161 IN PAC 6/1/2018 GENERAL
CHARTER COMMUNICATIONS, INC PAC $2,500 69013 IN PAC 6/29/2018 GENERAL
COMCAST CORPORATION & NBC UNIVERSAL PAC $2,500 19103 IN PAC 6/29/2018 GENERAL
COMCAST CORPORATION & NBC UNIVERSAL PAC $2,500 19103 IN PAC 9/8/2017 GENERAL
COMCAST CORPORATION & NBC UNIVERSAL PAC $2,500 19103 IN PAC 9/8/2017 PRIMARY
COMCAST CORPORATION & NBC UNIVERSAL PAC $2,500 19103 IN PAC 3/29/2017 PRIMARY
COUNCIL OF INSURANCE AGENTS & BROKERS PAC $2,500 20004 IN PAC 11/17/2017 PRIMARY
DELOITTE FEDERAL PAC $2,500 20044 IL PAC 10/20/2017 GENERAL
EMERGENT BIOSOLUTIONS EMPLOYEES PAC $2,500 20004 DC PAC 9/22/2017 PRIMARY
EMPLOYEES OF NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORP PAC $2,500 22042 DC PAC 5/7/2018 GENERAL
EMPLOYEES OF NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORP PAC $2,500 22042 DC PAC 12/15/2017 PRIMARY
EMPLOYEES OF NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORP PAC $2,500 22042 DC PAC 2/17/2017 PRIMARY
EXPRESS SCRIPTS INC. PAC $2,500 63121 DC PAC 6/12/2017 PRIMARY
EXXONMOBIL PAC $2,500 75039 VA PAC 10/6/2017 PRIMARY
EYE OF THE TIGER PAC $2,500 22152 VA PAC 2/21/2018 PRIMARY
FAA MANAGERS ASSOCIATION INC. PAC $2,500 32233 VA PAC 12/6/2017 PRIMARY
FRESENIUS MEDICAL CARE NORTH AMERICA PAC $2,500 20004 DC PAC 3/9/2018 PRIMARY
GENENTECH INC. PAC $2,500 94080 DC PAC 12/21/2017 PRIMARY
GOOGLE NETPAC $2,500 20001 TX PAC 8/18/2017 PRIMARY
GRIDIRON-PAC $2,500 10154 PA PAC 3/28/2018 PRIMARY
GROWTH ENERGY PAC $2,500 20002 PA PAC 3/16/2018 PRIMARY
HANDT, ALAN DR. $2,500 46077 PA IND 6/1/2018 GENERAL
HANDT, DEBORAH MRS. $2,500 46077 PA IND 6/1/2018 GENERAL
HUMANA INC. PAC $2,500 20004 DC PAC 4/27/2018 PRIMARY
ICE MILLER PAC $2,500 46282 DC PAC 8/24/2017 PRIMARY
INTERNATIONAL PAPER PAC $2,500 20004 DC PAC 8/4/2017 PRIMARY
JOHNSON & JOHNSON PAC $2,500 20005 VA PAC 6/29/2017 PRIMARY
LACY, JOHN ANDRE MR. $2,500 46205 VA IND 7/22/2017 PRIMARY
MEDICAL DEVICE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION PAC $2,500 20043 VA PAC 12/1/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CONVENIENCE STORES PAC $2,500 22314 TX PAC 12/29/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE AND FINANCIAL ADVISORS PAC $2,500 22042 VA PAC 5/2/2018 PRIMARY
NATIONAL BEER WHOLESALERS ASSOCIATION PAC $2,500 22314 DC PAC 6/30/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL BEER WHOLESALERS ASSOCIATION PAC $2,500 22314 CA PAC 3/24/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL CORN GROWERS ASSOCIATION PAC (CORNPAC) $2,500 20001 DC PAC 3/22/2018 PRIMARY
PFIZER PAC $2,500 10017 DC PAC 6/6/2017 PRIMARY
ROLLS-ROYCE NORTH AMERICA PAC $2,500 20190 IN PAC 10/27/2017 PRIMARY
SALESFORCE.COM INC. PAC $2,500 20005 IN PAC 6/29/2018 GENERAL
SANOFI US EMPLOYEES PAC $2,500 88071 DC PAC 6/29/2018 GENERAL
SANOFI US EMPLOYEES PAC $2,500 88071 IN PAC 12/15/2017 PRIMARY
SMITH, MICHAEL L. MR. $2,500 46033 DC IND 3/13/2017 PRIMARY
SMITH, SUSAN MS. $2,500 46033 DC IND 3/13/2017 PRIMARY
SUNTRUST PAC $2,500 23219 IN PAC 3/29/2017 PRIMARY
TAKEDA PHARMACEUTICAL AMERICA, INC PAC $2,500 20001 DC PAC 6/29/2018 GENERAL
TUESDAY GROUP PAC $2,500 20003 VA PAC 6/29/2018 GENERAL
TUESDAY GROUP PAC $2,500 20003 VA PAC 4/16/2018 GENERAL
TUESDAY GROUP PAC $2,500 20003 VA PAC 6/19/2017 PRIMARY
TUESDAY GROUP PAC $2,500 20003 VA PAC 3/30/2017 PRIMARY
TWENTY FIRST CENTURY FOX, INC PAC $2,500 20001 DC PAC 3/29/2017 PRIMARY
UNITEDHEALTH GROUP INC PAC $2,500 55343 NY PAC 5/26/2017 PRIMARY
UPS PAC $2,500 30328 VA PAC 3/24/2017 PRIMARY
VERIZON COMMUNICATIONS INC. GOOD GOVERNMENT CLUB (VERIZON PAC) $2,500 20005 DC PAC 9/25/2017 PRIMARY
ZENECA INC. PAC $2,500 19850 NJ PAC 9/29/2017 PRIMARY
GRAND, ROBERT T. MR. $2,200 46260 IN IND 3/5/2018 PRIMARY
HOOSIERS FOR SUSAN AND LUKE $2,160 20016 IN COM 3/19/2018 GENERAL
ACTION COMMITTEE FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION $2,000 22203 VA PAC 12/29/2017 PRIMARY
AICPA PAC $2,000 27707 DC PAC 3/31/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE PAC AAEM PAC $2,000 53202 DC PAC 5/12/2017 PRIMARY
ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND COMPANY-ADM PAC $2,000 62525 DC PAC 3/16/2018 PRIMARY
BECTON, DICKINSON AND COMPANY PAC $2,000 74171 DC PAC 6/29/2018 GENERAL
BLUEPAC-BLUE CROSS BLUE SHIELD ASSOC PAC $2,000 20005 DC PAC 7/14/2017 PRIMARY
BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB CO EMPLOYEE PAC $2,000 86481 DC PAC 8/11/2017 PRIMARY
BUILDING LEADERSHIP AND INSPIRING NEW ENTERPRISE PAC $2,000 65102 DC PAC 3/10/2017 PRIMARY
CAPITAL ONE FINANCIAL CORPORATION $2,000 22102 IN PAC 3/10/2017 PRIMARY
EDWARDS LIFESCIENCES PAC $2,000 92614 DC PAC 3/28/2018 PRIMARY
FLANDERS, SCOTT MR. $2,000 92660 VA IND 4/26/2018 PRIMARY
FORD MOTOR COMPANY CIVIC ACTION FUND $2,000 48275 NC PAC 5/8/2018 PRIMARY
HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL PAC $2,000 20001 IL PAC 5/1/2018 PRIMARY
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FIRE FIGHTERS PAC $2,000 20006 NJ PAC 5/7/2018 PRIMARY
PG&E CORPORATION EMPLOYEES ENERGYPAC $2,000 94105 DC PAC 10/5/2017 PRIMARY
PNC PAC $2,000 15222 NJ PAC 4/6/2017 PRIMARY
RAYTHEON PAC $2,000 22209 MO PAC 5/1/2018 GENERAL
REGIONS FINANCIAL CORPORATION PAC $2,000 20005 VA PAC 3/10/2017 PRIMARY
ROCHE INC. GOOD GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE $2,000 74242 CA PAC 5/23/2018 GENERAL
ROSE, DOUGLAS MR. $2,000 46032 CA IND 1/16/2018 GENERAL
ROS-LEHTINEN FOR CONGRESS, ILEANA THE HONORA $2,000 33152 DC CCM 5/18/2017 PRIMARY
RYAN FOR CONGRESS, INC. $2,000 53547 DC CCM 4/6/2017 PRIMARY
RYAN FOR CONGRESS, INC. $2,000 53547 CA CCM 4/6/2017 GENERAL
SHAHEEN, YVONNE MS. $2,000 46032 PA IND 3/12/2018 PRIMARY
SLM CORPORATION PAC (SALLIE MAE PAC) $2,000 19713 VA PAC 12/21/2017 PRIMARY
SOCIETY OF INDEPENDENT GASOLINE MARKETERS OF AMERICA PAC $2,000 22030 DC PAC 7/18/2017 PRIMARY
THE GOLDMAN SACHS GROUP, INC. PAC $2,000 20001 NJ PAC 9/1/2017 PRIMARY
UNION PACIFIC CORPORATION FUND FOR EFFECTIVE GOVERNMENT $2,000 20005 IN PAC 3/9/2018 PRIMARY
ZIMMER BIOMET HOLDINGS, INC. PAC $2,000 20004 FL PAC 4/19/2018 PRIMARY
ZIMMER BIOMET HOLDINGS, INC. PAC $2,000 20004 WI PAC 10/27/2017 PRIMARY
ADVANCED MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATION PAC $1,850 20004 WI PAC 5/23/2018 GENERAL
ADVANCED MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATION PAC $1,850 20004 IN PAC 5/1/2018 PRIMARY
ADVANCED MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATION PAC $1,850 20004 DE PAC 12/8/2017 PRIMARY
CARD, ANDY MR. $1,700 46037 VA IND 5/3/2018 PRIMARY
MACALLISTER, P.E. MR. $1,700 46206 DC IND 2/12/2018 PRIMARY
MCCORMICK, MICHAEL D. $1,700 46077 DC IND 6/7/2018 GENERAL
NOBLESVILLE FIELDHOUSE LLC $1,700 46060 DC ORG 5/3/2018 PRIMARY
PFAU, NORMAN E. MR. JR. $1,700 47130 DC IND 2/1/2018 PRIMARY
SNYDER, JAMES MR. $1,700 46032 DC IND 3/29/2018 PRIMARY
REZEK, SHANNON MS. $1,623 46240 DC IND 7/22/2017 PRIMARY
KOBE, LISA H. MRS. $1,503 46205 DC IND 10/9/2017 PRIMARY
ABBOTT LABORATORIES EMPLOYEE PAC $1,500 60064 IN PAC 5/4/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY ASSOCIATION PAC $1,500 20005 IN PAC 6/29/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN COLLEGE OF RADIOLOGY ASSOC PAC $1,500 20191 IN PAC 6/29/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION PAC $1,500 20001 IN PAC 3/31/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR RADIATION ONCOLOGY PAC (ASTRO PAC) $1,500 22202 IN PAC 6/7/2017 PRIMARY
CBS CORPORATION PAC $1,500 20004 IN PAC 6/21/2018 GENERAL
CBS CORPORATION PAC $1,500 20004 IN PAC 3/31/2017 PRIMARY
CLARK, MURRAY MR. $1,500 46260 IN IND 7/14/2017 PRIMARY
EXXONMOBIL PAC $1,500 75039 IL PAC 3/24/2017 PRIMARY
INTERNATIONAL PAPER PAC $1,500 20004 DC PAC 9/30/2017 PRIMARY
LABORATORY CORPORATION OF AMERICA HOLDINGS PAC $1,500 27215 VA PAC 5/17/2018 GENERAL
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF HOME BUILDERS PAC $1,500 20005 DC PAC 5/3/2018 PRIMARY
NATIONAL AUTOMOBILE DEALERS ASSOCIATION PAC $1,500 20003 VA PAC 5/3/2018 PRIMARY
NATIONAL EMERGENCY MEDICINE PAC $1,500 75261 DC PAC 10/20/2017 PRIMARY
PAC OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS $1,500 20002 DC PAC 3/31/2018 PRIMARY
ROCHE INC. GOOD GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE $1,500 74242 IN PAC 5/14/2018 PRIMARY
ZINK, DARELL EUGENE MR. JR. $1,500 46228 TX IND 1/8/2018 PRIMARY
HODOWAL, VIRGINIA H. MS. $1,250 33913 DC IND 2/23/2017 PRIMARY
ABBOTT LABORATORIES EMPLOYEE PAC $1,000 60064 NC PAC 3/9/2018 PRIMARY
ABBOTT LABORATORIES EMPLOYEE PAC $1,000 60064 DC PAC 2/17/2017 PRIMARY
ABBVIE PAC $1,000 60064 VA PAC 6/21/2018 GENERAL
ABBVIE PAC $1,000 60064 TX PAC 4/21/2017 PRIMARY
ABBVIE PAC $1,000 60064 DC PAC 2/24/2017 PRIMARY
ACADEMY OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS PAC $1,000 20036 NJ PAC 5/1/2018 PRIMARY
ACCENTURE PAC $1,000 20006 IN PAC 6/29/2018 GENERAL
ACCENTURE PAC $1,000 20006 FL PAC 12/15/2017 PRIMARY
ACTION COMMITTEE FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION $1,000 22203 IL PAC 5/23/2018 GENERAL
ACTION COMMITTEE FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION $1,000 22203 IL PAC 5/3/2018 PRIMARY
ACTION COMMITTEE FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION $1,000 22203 IL PAC 3/28/2018 GENERAL
ACTION COMMITTEE FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION $1,000 22203 IL PAC 3/13/2017 PRIMARY
AETNA INC PAC $1,000 20001 IL PAC 3/31/2018 PRIMARY
AICPA PAC $1,000 27707 DC PAC 5/17/2018 GENERAL
ALEXION PHARMACEUTICALS INC. PAC $1,000 65103 DC PAC 2/24/2017 PRIMARY
ALKERMES, INC. PAC $1,000 24511 DC PAC 5/26/2017 PRIMARY
ALLEY, MICHAEL MR. $1,000 46240 VA IND 3/19/2018 PRIMARY
ALLEY, MICHAEL MR. $1,000 46240 VA IND 6/15/2017 PRIMARY
AMAZON CORPORATE LLC SEPARATE SEGREGATED FUND (AMAZON PAC) $1,000 20001 VA PAC 6/15/2018 GENERAL
AMAZON CORPORATE LLC SEPARATE SEGREGATED FUND (AMAZON PAC) $1,000 20001 VA PAC 6/15/2018 GENERAL
AMAZON CORPORATE LLC SEPARATE SEGREGATED FUND (AMAZON PAC) $1,000 20001 DC PAC 9/8/2017 PRIMARY
AMBROSE RCP, LLP $1,000 46204 NC ORG 3/20/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF NEUROLOGY BRAINPAC $1,000 55415 CT PAC 12/29/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF OPHTHALMOLOGY PAC $1,000 94109 MA PAC 6/29/2018 GENERAL
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD & NECK SURGERY PAC $1,000 22314 IN PAC 6/23/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINCIAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS INCPAC AACEPAC $1,000 32202 IN PAC 6/29/2018 GENERAL
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF NURSE ANESTHETISTS CRNA PAC $1,000 20001 DC PAC 11/10/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF NURSE PRACTITIONERS PAC $1,000 78711 DC PAC 5/26/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL, INC $1,000 20002 DC PAC 3/1/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY PAC $1,000 20037 IN PAC 5/4/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN COUNCIL OF ENGINEERING COMPANIES PAC (ACEC PAC) $1,000 20005 MN PAC 5/3/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN COUNCIL OF ENGINEERING COMPANIES PAC (ACEC PAC) $1,000 20005 CA PAC 11/17/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN COUNCIL OF ENGINEERING COMPANIES PAC (ACEC PAC) $1,000 20005 VA PAC 8/21/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN DENTAL PAC $1,000 20005 FL PAC 5/7/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN EXPRESS COMPANY PAC (AXPPAC) $1,000 20004 DC PAC 6/21/2018 GENERAL
AMERICAN GAMING ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 20001 TX PAC 5/12/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN HEALTH CARE ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 8/22/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN HEALTH CARE ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 6/30/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN HEALTH CARE ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 5/26/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 20001 DC PAC 3/31/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN LIGHTING ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 75207 DC PAC 7/6/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 20001 DC PAC 12/21/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN OSTEOPATHIC INFORMATION ASSOCIATION OSTEOPATHIC PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 5/17/2018 GENERAL
AMERICAN OSTEOPATHIC INFORMATION ASSOCIATION OSTEOPATHIC PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 3/31/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN OSTEOPATHIC INFORMATION ASSOCIATION OSTEOPATHIC PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 3/1/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN PHARMACISTS ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 20037 DC PAC 4/16/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN PHYSICAL THERAPY ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 22314 DC PAC 5/18/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 22209 DC PAC 3/28/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 63141 TX PAC 4/16/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 63141 DC PAC 3/16/2018 PRIMARY
AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 63141 DC PAC 6/23/2017 PRIMARY
AMERICAS HEALTH INSURANCE PLANS PAC (AHIP PAC) $1,000 20004 DC PAC 6/23/2017 PRIMARY
AMGEN PAC $1,000 91320 DC PAC 6/23/2017 PRIMARY
ARNOLD & PORTER KAYE SCHOLER LLP (APKS) PARTNERS PAC $1,000 20001 DC PAC 6/16/2017 PRIMARY
ASSOCIATED GENERAL CONTRACTORS OF AMERICA PAC $1,000 22201 VA PAC 9/29/2017 PRIMARY
ASSOCIATION OF EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS PAC $1,000 20005 VA PAC 6/30/2017 PRIMARY
ATN INTERNATIONAL, INC. PAC (ATN PAC) $1,000 19156 MO PAC 12/8/2017 PRIMARY
BECTON, DICKINSON AND COMPANY PAC $1,000 74171 MO PAC 11/17/2017 PRIMARY
BETLEY, KATHRYN MS. $1,000 46260 MO IND 3/12/2018 PRIMARY
BEYERL, GREG MR. $1,000 46055 DC IND 6/18/2018 GENERAL
BHATIA, SUMEET DR. $1,000 46032 CA IND 2/27/2017 PRIMARY
BIOGEN PAC $1,000 24932 DC PAC 2/10/2017 PRIMARY
BLUEPAC-BLUE CROSS BLUE SHIELD ASSOC PAC $1,000 20005 VA PAC 2/24/2017 PRIMARY
BOEING COMPANY PAC $1,000 22202 DC PAC 3/29/2018 PRIMARY
BOEING COMPANY PAC $1,000 22202 MA PAC 12/27/2017 PRIMARY
BOOTH, SALLY A. DR. $1,000 46077 NJ IND 3/6/2017 PRIMARY
BOSE PUBLIC AFFAIRS GROUP LLC/BOSE MCKINNEY & EVANS LLP PAC $1,000 46204 IN PAC 4/26/2018 PRIMARY
BOSTON SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION PAC (‘BSC PAC’) $1,000 17521 IN PAC 7/7/2017 PRIMARY
BOWELL, MARK MR. $1,000 46206 IN IND 7/31/2017 PRIMARY
BRADLEY, DAVID MR. $1,000 64502 MA IND 6/26/2018 GENERAL
BROUILLETTE, JOANN MS. $1,000 47901 DC IND 3/1/2018 PRIMARY
BROWN, DOUGLAS R. MR. $1,000 46208 VA IND 4/26/2018 PRIMARY
BURKLEY, DANA J. MS. $1,000 48176 VA IND 4/23/2018 PRIMARY
BURKS, KEITH W MR. $1,000 34103 IN IND 7/10/2017 PRIMARY
CALLAHAN, PATRICK MR. $1,000 46240 IN IND 2/20/2017 PRIMARY
CARD, ANDY MR. $1,000 46037 MA IND 12/4/2017 PRIMARY
CELGENE CORPORATION PAC $1,000 79013 IN PAC 6/21/2018 GENERAL
CENTENE CORPORATION PAC (CENTENE PAC) $1,000 63105 MO PAC 5/26/2017 PRIMARY
CENTURYLINK INC. EMPLOYEES PAC $1,000 20001 IN PAC 9/1/2017 PRIMARY
CHAMBERS, BRADLEY B. MR. $1,000 46204 IN IND 7/17/2017 PRIMARY
CHEN, ALBERT MR. $1,000 46032 MI IND 6/19/2017 PRIMARY
CHILDRESS, KELLY $1,000 22314 FL IND 6/7/2017 PRIMARY
CHRISTOFOLIS, JUDITH A. MRS. $1,000 46239 IN IND 7/15/2017 PRIMARY
CIGNA PAC $1,000 19192 IN PAC 6/16/2017 PRIMARY
COALPAC, A PAC OF THE NATIONAL MINING ASSOCIATION $1,000 20001 NJ PAC 12/15/2017 PRIMARY
COCHRAN, KENDALL MR. $1,000 46240 MO IND 7/22/2017 PRIMARY
CONNER, WILLIS RICK MR. $1,000 46256 DC IND 11/30/2017 PRIMARY
CONNER, WILLIS RICK MR. $1,000 46256 IN IND 6/15/2017 PRIMARY
CONSERVATIVES RESTORING EXCELLENCE (CRE-PAC) $1,000 27624 IN PAC 4/11/2017 PRIMARY
CONSUMER TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 22202 VA PAC 3/10/2017 PRIMARY
COOK GROUP INC PAC $1,000 20001 IN PAC 7/10/2017 PRIMARY
COVANTA ENERGY LLC PAC (COVANTA PAC) $1,000 79606 PA PAC 6/23/2017 PRIMARY
CROW, CHARLES L. MR. $1,000 46060 DC IND 6/25/2018 GENERAL
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CROWE PAC $1,000 46240 IN PAC 4/30/2018 PRIMARY
CSL EMPLOYEES PAC $1,000 19406 NC PAC 6/9/2017 PRIMARY
CTIA – THE WIRELESS ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 20036 VA PAC 6/30/2017 PRIMARY
CULAC PAC $1,000 20004 DC PAC 12/27/2017 PRIMARY
CULAC PAC $1,000 20004 NJ PAC 8/24/2017 PRIMARY
CUMMINS INC. PAC $1,000 20004 IN PAC 7/28/2017 GENERAL
CVS HEALTH PAC $1,000 20004 IN PAC 6/1/2017 PRIMARY
DAN BURTON FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE $1,000 46250 IN CCM 5/3/2018 PRIMARY
DANIELS, DEBORAH J. $1,000 46250 IN IND 3/6/2017 PRIMARY
DANIELS, DEBORAH J. MS. $1,000 46250 PA IND 3/23/2018 PRIMARY
DAVIS, GROVER MR. $1,000 46204 DC IND 3/20/2017 PRIMARY
DAVITA HEALTHCARE PARTNERS INC. PAC (DAPAC) $1,000 98001 DC PAC 3/22/2018 PRIMARY
DAVITA HEALTHCARE PARTNERS INC. PAC (DAPAC) $1,000 98001 DC PAC 5/26/2017 PRIMARY
DEDICATED TO ESTABLISHING NATIONAL TEAMWORK PAC (DENT PAC) $1,000 33606 DC PAC 10/20/2017 PRIMARY
DELL INC. EMPLOYEE PAC $1,000 20001 DC PAC 9/30/2017 PRIMARY
DOBROZSI, JEFFREY MR. $1,000 20005 IN IND 8/10/2017 PRIMARY
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DOW PAC $1,000 48674 IN PAC 3/9/2018 PRIMARY
DUKE ENERGY CORPORATION PAC $1,000 28202 IN PAC 8/4/2017 PRIMARY
DUKE ENERGY CORPORATION PAC $1,000 28202 WA PAC 3/29/2017 PRIMARY
E.I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS COMPANY GOOD GOVERNMENT FUND (DUPONT GOOD GOVERNMENT FUND) $1,000 19805 FL PAC 3/1/2018 GENERAL
EDWARDS LIFESCIENCES PAC $1,000 92614 DC PAC 10/20/2017 PRIMARY
EHEALTH INC. PAC (EHEALTH PAC) $1,000 20036 DC PAC 5/10/2018 PRIMARY
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EMD SERONO, INC. PAC $1,000 23701 NC PAC 6/29/2017 PRIMARY
EXXONMOBIL PAC $1,000 75039 NC PAC 12/21/2017 PRIMARY
FEDERAL EXPRESS PAC $1,000 38120 DE PAC 4/27/2018 PRIMARY
FELTMAN, NATHAN MR. $1,000 46032 CA IND 3/15/2018 PRIMARY
FORD MOTOR COMPANY CIVIC ACTION FUND $1,000 48275 DC PAC 3/30/2017 PRIMARY
FRATERNITY & SORORITY PAC $1,000 22302 VA PAC 4/5/2018 PRIMARY
FRATERNITY & SORORITY PAC $1,000 22302 FL PAC 3/12/2018 PRIMARY
FRATERNITY & SORORITY PAC $1,000 22302 MA PAC 12/30/2017 PRIMARY
FRATERNITY & SORORITY PAC $1,000 22302 TX PAC 11/9/2017 PRIMARY
FRATERNITY & SORORITY PAC $1,000 22302 IN PAC 4/6/2017 PRIMARY
FRESH THYME EVANSVILLE PARTNERS LLC $1,000 46082 MI ORG 5/24/2018 GENERAL
FRITTS, EDWARD O. MR. $1,000 22207 VA IND 4/6/2017 PRIMARY
GENERAL ELECTRIC PAC $1,000 20004 VA PAC 4/19/2018 PRIMARY
GENERAL ELECTRIC PAC $1,000 20004 VA PAC 10/16/2017 PRIMARY
GENERAL ELECTRIC PAC $1,000 20004 VA PAC 6/30/2017 PRIMARY
GLAXOSMITHKLINE PAC $1,000 27709 VA PAC 3/31/2017 PRIMARY
GLICK, MARIANNE $1,000 46250 IN IND 8/15/2017 PRIMARY
GLOVER PARK PAC $1,000 20005 VA PAC 4/21/2017 PRIMARY
GRIFFITH, PERRY MR. $1,000 46240 DC IND 2/27/2017 PRIMARY
GUTTING, JAMES M. MR. $1,000 46256 DC IND 3/8/2018 PRIMARY
GUTTING, JAMES M. MR. $1,000 46256 DC IND 3/18/2017 PRIMARY
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HAIER US APPLIANCE SOLUTIONS, INC., DBA GE APPLIANCES PAC $1,000 20004 IN PAC 3/28/2018 PRIMARY
HALDERMAN, RICHARD R. MR. $1,000 46077 DC IND 2/9/2017 PRIMARY
HALL, CLAYTON MR. $1,000 22213 IN IND 8/4/2017 PRIMARY
HARRISON, KATHLEEN A. MS. $1,000 46256 IN IND 8/28/2017 PRIMARY
HENKE, STEVE MR. $1,000 46033 IN IND 12/4/2017 PRIMARY
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HILL-ROM HOLDINGS, INC. PAC (HRPAC) $1,000 47006 DC PAC 3/1/2018 PRIMARY
HILL-ROM HOLDINGS, INC. PAC (HRPAC) $1,000 47006 IN PAC 3/24/2017 PRIMARY
HOHLT, DEBORAH $1,000 20004 VA IND 4/19/2018 PRIMARY
HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL PAC $1,000 20001 IN PAC 11/20/2017 PRIMARY
HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL PAC $1,000 20001 IN PAC 7/31/2017 PRIMARY
HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL PAC $1,000 20001 IN PAC 3/20/2017 PRIMARY
HOSPITAL CORPORATION OF AMERICA PAC $1,000 37203 IN PAC 6/29/2017 PRIMARY
HOWELL, J. MARK MR. $1,000 46032 IN IND 3/16/2018 GENERAL
HUMANA INC. PAC $1,000 20004 DC PAC 7/28/2017 PRIMARY
HUMANA INC. PAC $1,000 20004 DC PAC 6/2/2017 PRIMARY
IHEARTMEDIA, INC. – CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR PAC $1,000 78209 DC PAC 12/29/2017 PRIMARY
INDIANA ACRE/INDIANA STATEWIDE ASSN OF RECS INC -DBA INDIANA ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES $1,000 46214 DC PAC 12/11/2017 PRIMARY
INDIANA ACRE/INDIANA STATEWIDE ASSN OF RECS INC -DBA INDIANA ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES $1,000 46214 TN PAC 8/24/2017 PRIMARY
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FIRE FIGHTERS PAC $1,000 20006 IN PAC 3/31/2018 PRIMARY
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FIRE FIGHTERS PAC $1,000 20006 DC PAC 12/18/2017 PRIMARY
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FIRE FIGHTERS PAC $1,000 20006 DC PAC 3/31/2017 PRIMARY
INTERNATIONAL PAPER PAC $1,000 20004 TX PAC 4/21/2017 PRIMARY
JOHNSON & JOHNSON PAC $1,000 20005 IN PAC 5/1/2018 PRIMARY
JOHNSON CONTROLS INC. PAC $1,000 20005 IN PAC 5/14/2018 GENERAL
JOHNSON CONTROLS INC. PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 6/29/2017 PRIMARY
JOHNSON CONTROLS INC. PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 6/6/2017 PRIMARY
K&L GATES LLP PAC (DC) $1,000 20006 DC PAC 5/17/2018 GENERAL
KELLEY DRYE & WARREN PAC $1,000 20007 DC PAC 6/1/2018 GENERAL
KIMBELL, JEFFREY $1,000 20005 DC IND 6/21/2017 PRIMARY
KROGER PAC $1,000 45202 DC PAC 3/22/2018 PRIMARY
KTELEH, TAREK $1,000 46037 DC IND 8/24/2017 PRIMARY
KTELEH, TAREK $1,000 46037 DC IND 3/14/2017 PRIMARY
KUTAK ROCK LLP PAC $1,000 68102 DC PAC 4/27/2018 PRIMARY
LAIKIN, ROBERT J. MR. $1,000 46260 DC IND 1/12/2018 PRIMARY
LAMKIN, MARTHA D. MS. $1,000 46205 DC IND 2/13/2017 PRIMARY
LEHMAN, DANIEL DR. $1,000 46278 OH IND 3/12/2018 PRIMARY
LOFTUS, JOSEPH E. MR. JR. $1,000 46074 IN IND 8/24/2017 PRIMARY
MACALLISTER, P.E. MR. $1,000 46206 IN IND 2/16/2017 PRIMARY
MACKINNON, JEFFREY M. MR. $1,000 20015 IN IND 9/8/2017 PRIMARY
MACKINNON, JEFFREY M. MR. $1,000 20015 IN IND 6/29/2017 PRIMARY
MACKINNON, JEFFREY M. MR. $1,000 20015 IN IND 3/31/2017 PRIMARY
MARY BONO COMMITTEE $1,000 20001 IN PAC 7/14/2017 PRIMARY
MCCARTY, DARBY A. MR. $1,000 47429 IN IND 8/31/2017 PRIMARY
MCCORMICK, MICHAEL D. $1,000 46077 DC IND 5/7/2018 PRIMARY
MCMILLAN, JAMES R. MR. $1,000 46220 DC IND 3/6/2017 PRIMARY
MCNAUGHT, HARRY MR. $1,000 46032 DC IND 2/27/2017 PRIMARY
MCNEELY, J. LEE MR. $1,000 46176 DC IND 2/2/2017 PRIMARY
MEDTRONIC INC PAC $1,000 20004 IN PAC 3/9/2018 PRIMARY
MEDTRONIC INC PAC $1,000 20004 IN PAC 11/3/2017 PRIMARY
MEDTRONIC INC PAC $1,000 20004 IN PAC 2/24/2017 PRIMARY
MICROSOFT CORPORATION PAC $1,000 98052 IN PAC 6/15/2018 GENERAL
MICROSOFT CORPORATION PAC $1,000 98052 IN PAC 9/29/2017 PRIMARY
MILLER, ANDREW J. MR. $1,000 46032 DC IND 8/24/2017 PRIMARY
MOLINA HEALTHCARE INC. PAC $1,000 90802 DC PAC 10/30/2017 PRIMARY
MORRIS, JAMES T. MR. $1,000 46240 DC IND 9/8/2017 PRIMARY
MORTIER, JEFFREY C. MR. $1,000 20007 WA IND 3/31/2017 PRIMARY
MOTOROLA SOLUTIONS INC. PAC $1,000 20004 WA PAC 5/2/2018 PRIMARY
MOTOROLA SOLUTIONS INC. PAC $1,000 20004 IN PAC 3/31/2018 PRIMARY
MOTOROLA SOLUTIONS INC. PAC $1,000 20004 CA PAC 6/16/2017 PRIMARY
MOTOROLA SOLUTIONS INC. PAC $1,000 20004 IN PAC 6/16/2017 PRIMARY
MURPHY, ANNE W. MS. $1,000 46038 DC IND 8/24/2017 PRIMARY
MURPHY, JOHN MR. $1,000 46032 DC IND 3/6/2017 PRIMARY
NAHU PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 3/12/2018 PRIMARY
NATIONAL AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 10/16/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 8/24/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 20005 IN PAC 3/13/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF BROADCASTERS PAC $1,000 20036 IN PAC 6/26/2018 GENERAL
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHAIN DRUG STORES, INC. PAC $1,000 22209 DC PAC 6/1/2018 GENERAL
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF HOME BUILDERS PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 4/16/2018 PRIMARY
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF HOME BUILDERS PAC $1,000 20005 DC PAC 10/9/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANIES PAC $1,000 46268 DC PAC 9/8/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PSYCHIATRIC HEALTH SYSTEMS PAC (NAPHS/PAC) $1,000 20006 DC PAC 3/9/2018 PRIMARY
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PSYCHIATRIC HEALTH SYSTEMS PAC (NAPHS/PAC) $1,000 20006 VA PAC 8/4/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS PAC $1,000 60611 DC PAC 6/30/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS PAC $1,000 60611 DC PAC 4/6/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL AUTOMOBILE DEALERS ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 20003 IN PAC 3/31/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL BEER WHOLESALERS ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 22314 DC PAC 12/15/2017 GENERAL
NATIONAL COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS ASSOCIATION PAC $1,000 22314 DC PAC 3/24/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL CONFECTIONERS ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES, INC. PAC (CANDY PAC) $1,000 20007 IL PAC 2/17/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION PAC (‘NEMA PAC’) $1,000 22209 IL PAC 9/29/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL EMERGENCY MEDICINE PAC $1,000 75261 VA PAC 9/18/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATION RURAL BROADBAND PAC $1,000 22203 VA PAC 6/29/2017 PRIMARY
NATIONAL TOOLING & MACHINING ASSOCIATION $1,000 44134 VA PAC 5/5/2017 PRIMARY
NAVIENT CORPORATION PAC (NAVIENT PAC) $1,000 20191 DC PAC 3/12/2018 PRIMARY
NAVIENT CORPORATION PAC (NAVIENT PAC) $1,000 20191 VA PAC 3/9/2018 PRIMARY
NAVIENT CORPORATION PAC (NAVIENT PAC) $1,000 20191 TX PAC 5/12/2017 PRIMARY
NISOURCE PAC $1,000 43215 VA PAC 10/20/2017 PRIMARY
NOBLESVILLE FIELDHOUSE LLC $1,000 46060 OH ORG 12/4/2017 PRIMARY
NOVARTIS CORPORATION PAC $1,000 20004 VA PAC 5/5/2017 PRIMARY
NOVO NORDISK, INC. PAC $1,000 20001 VA PAC 3/24/2017 PRIMARY
OLD NATIONAL BANK PAC $1,000 47708 VA PAC 12/4/2017 PRIMARY
ORACLE AMERICA INC PAC $1,000 20005 OH PAC 5/14/2018 GENERAL
PERRY, GERALD STEPHEN MR. $1,000 22101 IN IND 12/15/2017 PRIMARY
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PFIZER PAC $1,000 10017 DC PAC 6/21/2018 GENERAL
PG&E CORPORATION EMPLOYEES ENERGYPAC $1,000 94105 VA PAC 3/28/2018 PRIMARY
PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH & MANUFACTURERS OF AMERICA BETTER GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE $1,000 20004 IN PAC 7/7/2017 PRIMARY
PITNEY BOWES INC. PAC $1,000 69054 IN PAC 5/17/2018 GENERAL
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RAYTHEON PAC $1,000 22209 CA PAC 10/23/2017 PRIMARY
RAYTHEON PAC $1,000 22209 DC PAC 9/11/2017 PRIMARY
REILLY, THOMAS MR. $1,000 46260 CT IND 3/9/2017 PRIMARY
REPUBLICAN MAIN STREET PARTNERSHIP PAC $1,000 20004 OH PAC 3/9/2018 PRIMARY
REPUBLICAN MAIN STREET PARTNERSHIP PAC $1,000 20004 IN PAC 12/14/2017 PRIMARY
REPUBLICAN MAIN STREET PARTNERSHIP PAC $1,000 20004 VA PAC 6/28/2017 PRIMARY
REPUBLICAN MAIN STREET PARTNERSHIP PAC $1,000 20004 VA PAC 2/17/2017 PRIMARY
RICKER, NANCY $1,000 46016 IN IND 1/19/2017 PRIMARY
ROLLS-ROYCE NORTH AMERICA PAC $1,000 20190 DC PAC 6/15/2018 GENERAL
ROLLS-ROYCE NORTH AMERICA PAC $1,000 20190 DC PAC 3/24/2017 PRIMARY
ROOB, E. MITCHELL MR. JR. $1,000 46220 DC IND 4/26/2018 PRIMARY
ROSE, DOUGLAS MR. $1,000 46032 DC IND 3/12/2017 PRIMARY
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RUTIGLIANO, NICK MR. $1,000 46033 VA IND 11/9/2017 PRIMARY
SALESFORCE.COM INC. PAC $1,000 20005 IN PAC 1/13/2017 PRIMARY
SALSBERY, PHIL MR. $1,000 46204 IN IND 8/14/2017 PRIMARY
SANOFI US EMPLOYEES PAC $1,000 88071 IN PAC 6/23/2017 PRIMARY
SAUER, JANICE E. MS. $1,000 46234 IN IND 2/9/2017 PRIMARY
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SCHUCKIT, ROBERT MR. $1,000 46032 DC IND 3/7/2018 PRIMARY
SEED FIRST PAC $1,000 20003 IN PAC 3/1/2018 PRIMARY
SELLS GROUP $1,000 46204 NJ ORG 4/24/2018 PRIMARY
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STANLEY BLACK & DECKER, INC. PAC $1,000 20001 DC PAC 4/12/2018 PRIMARY
STEEL, GEORGE DONALD MR. $1,000 46256 IN IND 3/1/2018 PRIMARY
TAKEDA PHARMACEUTICAL AMERICA, INC PAC $1,000 20001 IN PAC 6/6/2017 PRIMARY
TARGETCITIZENS POLITICAL FORUM $1,000 55403 IN PAC 5/1/2018 PRIMARY
TAUB, H. RUSSELL AMBASSADOR $1,000 29209 IL IND 2/19/2018 PRIMARY
THE AES CORPORATION PAC $1,000 22203 DC PAC 3/31/2018 GENERAL
THE AES CORPORATION PAC $1,000 22203 IN PAC 3/22/2018 GENERAL
THE AES CORPORATION PAC $1,000 22203 DC PAC 11/10/2017 PRIMARY
THE AES CORPORATION PAC $1,000 22203 MN PAC 10/20/2017 PRIMARY
THE AES CORPORATION PAC $1,000 22203 VA PAC 6/9/2017 PRIMARY
THE AES CORPORATION PAC $1,000 22203 VA PAC 5/5/2017 PRIMARY
THE AES CORPORATION PAC $1,000 22203 VA PAC 3/10/2017 PRIMARY
THE COCA-COLA COMPANY NONPARTISAN COMM FOR GOOD GOVT $1,000 30301 VA PAC 12/15/2017 PRIMARY
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UNITED TECHNOLOGIES PAC $1,000 20004 GA PAC 8/4/2017 PRIMARY
URBAHNS, JANNA L. MS. $1,000 46032 DC IND 2/6/2017 PRIMARY
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USBANCORP INC PAC $1,000 15901 IN PAC 3/10/2017 PRIMARY
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WAL-MART STORES INC. PAC FOR RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT $1,000 72716 IN PAC 12/29/2017 PRIMARY
WAL-MART STORES INC. PAC FOR RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT $1,000 72716 DC PAC 6/23/2017 PRIMARY
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Attention, US Senators and Representatives: “When majesty falls to folly. Reserve thy state.”

shakespeare

Let it fall rather, though the fork invade
The region of my heart. Be Kent unmannerly
When Lear is mad. What wouldst thou do, old man?
Think’st thou that duty shall have dread to speak
When power to flattery bows? To plainness honor’s bound
When majesty falls to folly. Reserve thy state.

When William Shakespeare wrote those words in 1606 of Kent confronting King Lear, he could not have foreseen Congressional Republicans’ obsequiousness toward Donald Trump some 400 years later. In fact, Jamestown colony was founded in 1607 making it unlikely that he could have foreseen anything resembling the birth, evolution, and devolution of the American political system.

Maybe foreseeing future is not the point. Maybe what makes Shakespeare’s work so timeless is that it speaks to a human condition unbounded by generation or geography. In the 15th century, Shakespeare wrote about a King in the 8th century BCE whose madness facilitated his acceptance of flattery over reason. Sound familiar?

The parallels to today are apparent. Despite the lack of a professional diagnosis of mental illness, it’s hard to imagine that any observer of Donald Trump could honestly argue the man does not have some sort of mental impairment or personality disorder. At a minimum, we know his narcissism drives him to make decisions based on flattery far more often than on logic or reason.

It was clear to Kent that Lear’s madness was already becoming manifest and his decisions and actions were being driven by flattery and not reason. Kent chose to confront the king and not be complicit in his actions.

Congressional republicans are in a similar situation. It is hard to imagine any of them truly thinking Trump’s actions are rational and good for the country. And yet, they are largely silent allowing the king to fall to folly.

Now that Senator John McCain is no longer with us, who among the 293 Republicans in the legislative branch will heed the words of the Bard?

To plainness honor’s bound
When majesty falls to folly. Reserve thy state.

An open letter to Senator Todd Young -Preserve John McCain’s America

To Senator Todd Young, United States Senator from Indiana:

You are a Senator of the United States of America with the power to shape the country’s future. You can’t do that by being subservient to the executive branch or to Mitch McConnell or to lobbyists. How sad it would be for you to look back in your time in the Senate and realize you failed to make a difference.

John McCain made a difference by being his own person and faithfully following his own moral compass- Trump, McConnell, and lobbyists be damned. I encourage you to find your own moral compass, follow it, and make a difference.

Read the Senator’s words again and realize that America needs more elected officials with his ideals, his vision and his passion.

 

John McCain’s farewell statement:

My fellow Americans, whom I have gratefully served for sixty years, and especially my fellow Arizonans,

Thank you for the privilege of serving you and for the rewarding life that service in uniform and in public office has allowed me to lead. I have tried to serve our country honorably. I have made mistakes, but I hope my love for America will be weighed favorably against them.

I have often observed that I am the luckiest person on earth. I feel that way even now as I prepare for the end of my life. I have loved my life, all of it. I have had experiences, adventures and friendships enough for ten satisfying lives, and I am so thankful. Like most people, I have regrets. But I would not trade a day of my life, in good or bad times, for the best day of anyone else’s.

I owe that satisfaction to the love of my family. No man ever had a more loving wife or children he was prouder of than I am of mine. And I owe it to America. To be connected to America’s causes – liberty, equal justice, respect for the dignity of all people – brings happiness more sublime than life’s fleeting pleasures. Our identities and sense of worth are not circumscribed but enlarged by serving good causes bigger than ourselves.

“Fellow Americans” – that association has meant more to me than any other. I lived and died a proud American. We are citizens of the world’s greatest republic, a nation of ideals, not blood and soil. We are blessed and are a blessing to humanity when we uphold and advance those ideals at home and in the world. We have helped liberate more people from tyranny and poverty than ever before in history. We have acquired great wealth and power in the process.

We weaken our greatness when we confuse our patriotism with tribal rivalries that have sown resentment and hatred and violence in all the corners of the globe. We weaken it when we hide behind walls, rather than tear them down, when we doubt the power of our ideals, rather than trust them to be the great force for change they have always been.

We are three-hundred-and-twenty-five million opinionated, vociferous individuals. We argue and compete and sometimes even vilify each other in our raucous public debates. But we have always had so much more in common with each other than in disagreement. If only we remember that and give each other the benefit of the presumption that we all love our country we will get through these challenging times. We will come through them stronger than before. We always do.

Ten years ago, I had the privilege to concede defeat in the election for president. I want to end my farewell to you with the heartfelt faith in Americans that I felt so powerfully that evening.

I feel it powerfully still.

Do not despair of our present difficulties but believe always in the promise and greatness of America, because nothing is inevitable here. Americans never quit. We never surrender. We never hide from history. We make history.

Farewell, fellow Americans. God bless you, and God bless America.

Algae blooms in Florida are a manifestation of a much larger problem.

Algae blooms are not unique to Florida. While nutrient pollution potentiates blooms in all 50 states[i] and in countries around the world, one could argue that, at some point, differences in degree become differences in kind.

Baltic Sea - Gulf of Finland

Florida – a difference in kind?

There are some unique circumstances in Florida that may support that argument. Lake Okeechobee has served as a catch basin for nitrogen-rich fertilizer runoff for decades, and it is an ideal incubator for blue green algae. Southwest Florida managers have little choice but to discharge the algae-laden water to the rivers and estuaries to the east and west when lake water levels threaten the integrity of Herbert Hoover Dike.

China

Citizens and activist in Florida are right to hold polluters and government officials accountable for the problem and to seek all possible remedies. However, addressing the issue will be a daunting challenge with no near-term solution in site.

Part of the challenge is that the problem has been brewing for decades. The University of Florida estimates that even if all farming were to stop today, there would be enough residual nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients remaining in the soil to feed blooms for the next 50 years.[ii]

Algae is one of many canaries

And then there is the real catalyst for blooms around the world that may take centuries to be solved – global warming.  If past is prologue regarding nutrient pollution, then it’s possible that humans will be able to address agricultural nutrient pollution in a way that detergent phosphate pollution was addressed in the 1970s. It’s possible, but realistically, I don’t think it’s probable.

Agricultural nutrient pollution is likely not going to be solved by a single legislative act. It’s easier for Americans to use phosphate-free laundry detergent than it will be for them to pay a bit more for ubiquitous refined sugar. Plus, the ranching and sugar lobbyists are likely more effective than any phosphate lobbying groups in the 70s.

erie_oli_2018185_lrg

July 4, 2018. Lake Erie algae bloom

The temporal myopia of humans

The real challenge in addressing catastrophic problems is that humans don’t recognize the magnitude of the problem until it impacts their daily, transactional life. We impatiently expect to resolve in months what has taken decades or centuries to develop. I considered this human characteristic in a 2015 blog post – “Obliviousness to global catastrophes- if we can’t feel it, it simply doesn’t exist.”[iii] I think algae blooms are just one of many examples of how our species is incapable of acting on a daily basis with anything resembling long-term vision.

If we were capable of thinking beyond the next Facebook posting or past the next critically important tweet (an oxymoron if ever there were one) we’d be able to see that humans are truly killing the planet. Not next century, not the next decade, but now. Right now. If you’ve read this far, I encourage you to take a brief moment and look out the window. What do you see? You probably see the hum and buzz of daily life. But, if you look beyond that, what you’ll see is that you very well may be looking at the sixth mass extinction on planet earth.

Some scientists have argued that we are currently in the midst of the Holocene extinction event. I’ve pondered the probable role of human production of carbon dioxide as a main contributor factor to a mass extinction in “The Holocene extinction event. Is our species’ destiny to be known as “The Burners?”[iv]

So, our challenge as a species is to discover a way to find long-term solutions to problems created by our propensity to live in the moment, do what feels good, and maximize personal and corporate wealth. Not to be overly pessimistic, but my guess is that we, as the dominant species on earth, will fail. All is not lost. The earth will go on long after the human experiment has run its course.

My optimism for the planet, but not our species, was noted in 2014, “Humans are a minor perturbation in the life of the earth.”[v] Unfortunately, I believe that is still the case. Even more so as the United States under the current administration continues to eviscerate environmental regulations.

Headlines, pictures, and other interesting references.

Minnesota Botanical Studies, Volume 3, 1903-1904

“An endeavor has been made to collect some of the more important known facts concerning “water bloom” as it occurs in Minnesota and neighboring states. It seems quite certain that at least some of the algae causing this appearance in water supplies are of considerable sanitary importance.”

Coal Consumption Affecting Climate- Rodney and Otamatea Times, Waitemata And Kaipara Gazette, 14 August 1912

“The furnaces of the world are now burning about 2,000,000,00 tons of coal a year. When this is burned, uniting with oxygen, it adds about 7,000,000,000 tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere yearly. This tends to make the air a more effective blanket for the earth and to raise its temperature. The effect may be considerable in a few centuries.”

“Phosphates in Relation to Algal Plankton,” Botanical Gazette 78, no. 2 (Oct., 1924): 245-246.

“Evidence is accumulating to show temperature is a very potent influence in the blooming behavior of plants, and that photoperiodic responses me be very greatly modified by temperature effects.”

BOCA RATON NEWS: Vol. 15, No. 2 Sunday, Dec. 7, 1969 (PDF)

“Not only does the excessive plant growth lower the aesthetic value of waterways, but it can clog streams, causing floods during heavy rains. It also reduces the nesting area for fish and conceals their prey, ultimately reducing the game fish population.”

March 22, 1970: Warning: The Green Slime Is Here

““It was gluppy — like green latex paint,” said engineer Edwin C. Web er of the Maryland Department of Water Resources, who was sent to investigate after Burgess complained. But this was only the first stage of the disaster. Because there was so much of the Anacystis—and because the algae were bloated with nourishment flowing down the river from the sewers of Washington—they began to die.”

“Changes in the fauna and flora of a nutrient enriched lake,” Morgan, N.C. Hydrobiologia (1970) 35: 545.

“Changes in the flora and fauna at Loch Leven are described. Species associated with oligotrophic conditions such as charr and desmids have declined or disappeared, and prolonged, dense algal blooms, particularly Cyanophyceae, have been a feature of recent years. Much of the macrophytic vegetation has disappeared and there have been changes in the composition of the zooplankton and benthos, several abundant species disappearing…”

Are farmers’ profits more important than our water?

“Basically, Taylor said, if you want to save Lake Erie and our other waterways, the only way we can do that is to force factory farms to have their own wastewater treatment plants at the site that follow the same standards as those for municipal sewage plants.”

Algal blooms endangering China’s seas

“It looks like green snow, piled up in drifts along the shore of the Yellow Sea. Mountains of algae have become a stark image of marine pollution off the coast of China. In Qingdao, a major city in Shandong province, one of the cities often worst affected, the authorities employ bulldozers to remove thousands of tonnes of the invading algae from beaches.”

Researchers Looking Into Lake Superior Algae Bloom

“Researchers are trying to pinpoint the cause of a recent blue-green algae bloom on Lake Superior. The bloom appears to be the largest one witnessed so far on the lake. Eyewitness reports have spanned a roughly 50-mile stretch from east of Superior to the Apostle Islands.”

Toxic algae blooms spike in Upstate NY this week

“Syracuse, N.Y. — The number of water bodies with toxic algae blooms jumped this week in New York state to more than 50. The state Department of Environmental said the blooms have been discovered in 55 water bodies. That’s up from 42 just three weeks ago.”

Are Vermont wastewater treatment plants to blame for algae blooms?

“Now, the Conservation Law Foundation is appealing nine sewage treatment plant permits that have been approved by the state. The environmental group says these wastewater treatment facilities dumping phosphorus into Lake Champlain are partially responsible for the blooms.”

Blue green algae blooms menace coastlines of northern Europe

“Beach closures of lakes in western New York due to blue green algae blooms have become a familiar occurrence for the past few years, but recent satellite imagery of northern Europe has revealed an alarming number of the saltwater variant of blue algae blooms.”

Montana waters tainted by toxic algae blooms, state calls for public awareness

“Toxic Algae may be present,” it says. “Water may be unsafe for people and pets.”

Skaneateles Lake beaches closed after harmful algae blooms pop up

“There is no swimming today at Clift Park and the Skaneateles Country Club “due to the visual presence of an algal bloom,” the Onondaga County Health Department said.”

Algae blooms are becoming an issue not only nationally, but here in Montana as well.

“Algae blooms are becoming an issue not only nationally, but here in Montana as well. According to the NOAA, these blooms are the result of microscopic algae flourishing and releasing dangerous toxins into the water. If you happen to see any algae-blooms, don’t go anywhere near the water.”

Algae blooms force Poland to shut down 50 Baltic Sea beaches

“Authorities in Poland this week banned swimming at over 50 beaches along its Baltic coast, after hot weather led to the toxic growth of bacteria in the unusually warm sea. ”

Separate blue-green algae blooms restrict recreation access at Eagle Island, E. Idaho

“The Idaho Department of Parks and Recreation restricted water access to the pond at Eagle Island State Park after a blue-green algae bloom was detected on July 17.”

New Jersey lakes need to go on a diet. Too much phosphorous causing harmful algae blooms

“Phosphorus drives major productivity of algae and weeds,” said Steve Souza, founder of Princeton Hydro, a company that helps communities manage lakes. “You need enough nutrients to support a healthy lake, but too much leads to the demise in the overall ecology of those lake systems. “Basically, our lakes need to go on a diet,” Souza said.

North Carolina reminds public to avoid Chowan River algal blooms

“Officials with the N.C. Division of Water Resources continue to urge the public to avoid contact with green or blue water in the Chowan River due to an ongoing algal bloom that has lingered in the area since June 20.”

Utah Lake on ‘warning’ level over harmful algal bloom

“PROVO, Utah — Public health officials announced Utah Lake is now on a “warning” level due to a potentially harmful algal bloom.”

Article References:

[i] https://www.epa.gov/nutrientpollution/harmful-algal-blooms

[ii] https://www.flseagrant.org/news/2018/07/the-algae-bloom-is-back-but-why/

[iii] https://confrontingmediocrity.net/2015/10/03/global-catastrophe-oblivion-if-we-cant-feel-it-it-simply-doesnt-exist/

[iv] https://confrontingmediocrity.net/2014/04/13/the-holocene-extinction-event-is-our-species-destiny-to-be-known-as-the-burners/

[v] https://confrontingmediocrity.net/2014/02/09/humans-are-a-minor-perturbation-in-the-life-of-the-earth/